The purpose of this study is unique in its use of Q methodology to examine how students' personal epistemological views compared to how their instructor perceived their views. The ability to determine the differences and similarities in these epistemological views have implications for further research associated with learning (Halloun & Hestenes, 1998; May & Etkina, 2002; Schommer, 1993b) and instructor attitudes towards students. A variety of research methodologies have been employed to determine epistemology (Duell & Schommer-Aikins, 2001) including a number in physics (diSessa, 1993; Halloun & Hestenes, 1998; Hammer & Elby, 2003; Lising & Elby, 2005; Roth & Roychoudhury, 2003), but none have used Q methodology. This study demonstrated that Q is an effective way to reveal the multiple epistemological views in a classroom.

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Journal Operant Subjectivity
Susan Ramlo, PhD. (2006). Student Views of Learning in a First Semester College Physics Course: A Study Using Q Methodology. Operant Subjectivity, 30(1/2), 52–63. doi:10.15133/j.os.2006.008