This paper reports a test of the criticism that scaling techniques have the inherent tendency to obscure the manifold meanings subjects may have when they respond to a scale. Scores received by students on the Christian Orthodoxy Scale are compared to the factor results gained from the same statements used as a Q sort. The Q technique alternative reveals differentiations of meanings not reported in the scale scores.

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Journal Operant Subjectivity
Bruce McKeown, Ph.D. (2001). Technical Research Note: Loss of Meaning in Likert Scaling: A Note on the Q Methodological Alternative. Operant Subjectivity, 24(4), 201–206. doi:10.15133/j.os.2001.009